There are other contractions that are often heard in speech. Here are a few: The apostrophe is used when writing contractions – that is, shortened word forms where one or more letters have been omitted. In Standard English, this usually only happens with a small number of conventional elements, most of which are verbs. Here are some of the most common examples with their uncontracted equivalents: In any case, note that the apostrophe appears exactly at the position of the omitted letters: We write cannot, not *ca`nt, and are, not *are`nt. Also note that irregular contraction does not take its apostrophe between n and t, just like all other contractions that do not. And also note that it would have had two apostrophes because the material of two positions was omitted. A few generations ago, there were a little more contractions in the use of English; These other contractions are now archaic, and you wouldn`t normally use any of them except in direct quotes from older written articles. Here are a few, with their longer forms: Third, a year is sometimes written in an abbreviated form with an apostrophe: Pío Baroja was a distinctive member of the generation of 98. This is only normal in certain expressions of quantity; In my example, the term `98 generation is an accepted label for a certain group of Spanish writers, and it would not be normal to write *Generation of 1898.
However, apart from these conventional phrases, you should always write the entire years when you write formally: don`t write something like the `39-`45 war, but rather write the war from 1939 to 1945. Such contractions represent the most useful task that the apostrophe performs for us, because without it we would have no possibility of changing the difference between them and the shell, it becomes and hell, cannot and cannot, I become and sick, we are and have been, he would do it and we will lose, we will be good, and maybe a few others. Of course, it is never appropriate to use such familiar forms in formal writing unless you explicitly write via colloquial English. If you have the opportunity to quote or use these things, you should use the apostrophes in the normal way to mark the removed material. Second, apostrophes are sometimes used to represent words in non-standard forms of English: for example, the Scottish poet Robert Burns writes gi` to give and a` for all. It is unlikely that you will need this device unless you cite such work. Such truncated forms are not considered contractions and should not be written with apostrophes. When you write things like “hippopotamus,” “bra,” “cello and phone,” so you don`t mince your words, you`ll look like an affected old duddy who doesn`t approve of anything that`s happened since 1912. Of course, some of these truncated forms are even more familiar, and in formal writing, you`d usually rather write Detective and Alligator than Tec and Gator. Others, however, are quite normal in formal writing: even the most worthy music critic would call Ofra Harnoy`s instrument a cello; he would use the cello no more than he would apply the word omnibus to a London biplane. Water is not everywhere it is for miles. Unfortunately, even after finding this water, only part of it is clean and safe enough to drink.
-an apostrophe for a contraction is missing. (“to be” should be “he”). Finally, there are certain circumstances in which apostrophes are used to represent the omission of material in cases where they are not exactly contractions. First of all, some surnames of non-English origin are written with apostrophes: O`Leary (Irish), d`Abbadie (French), D`Angelo (Italian), M`Tavish (Scottish Gaelic). They are not really contractions because there is no other way to write them. Use an apostrophe + S(s) to indicate that a person/thing owns something or is a member of something. Yes, even if the name ends with “s”, it is always fair to add another “`s” to create the possessive form. It is also acceptable to put only one apostrophe at the end of singular nouns ending in “s” to make them possessive. Some words that were contractions a long time ago are still written conventionally with apostrophes, although the longer forms have more or less disappeared from use. There are so few that you can easily learn them all. Here are the most common ones, with their original longer forms: It`s not wrong to use such contractions in formal writing, but you should use them sparingly, as they tend to make your writing less than completely formal. Trying to make this document more talkative than intimidating, I used a few contractions here and there, but not as many as I could have used.
But I advise you not to use the more familiar contractions as she would have done in your formal writing: these things, although quite normal in language, are a little too informal for careful writing. Contractions should be carefully distinguished from truncated forms. A truncated form is a complete word that is randomly derived by cutting a piece of a longer word, usually one with the same meaning. Cropped shapes are very common in English; Here are a few, with their associated longer forms: Short vowels are vowel sounds pronounced in a short form.. .